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Seductive woman, painting

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A pair of sharp shears used for cutting sheep or goats' wool

Delilah  cut Samson's hair 

Head of John the Baptist, Andrea Vaccaro

Salome  asked for John's head, and got it...

A savage dog with teeth bared

Jezebel. ..the dogs left only her head and hands.

A ripe pomegranate with its multiple seeds 

Eve  made her choice...

Marble Roman sculpture, thought to be the head of Caligula

Herodias met Caligula face-to-face. 

Girl with staring eyes

Lot's Wife  looked back, a fatal mistake. 

Photograph by Olivia Johnston, 'Lot's Daughters'

Lot's Daughters  
wanted children so badly..

Egyptian wall painting of a woman

Potiphar's Wife met an unusually handsome man, a Brad Pitt of the ancient world

Blood-spattered woman's hand holding a sharp knife

Athaliah   was hunted down and murdered 

Ancient Greek jewelry

Maacah  was forced to surrender all her jewelry (and her honour?) to the invaders...



Find out more

A large axe

Young People in the Bible: Salome
Was she innocent, or a devious young woman?

Impression from a greenstone cylinder seal, showing a serpent and a tree with two figures, probably deities

Adam & Eve
what archaeology says

Ancient gold necklace

Bible Archaeology: Jewelry sophisticated jewels of high-ranking women like Jezebel 

Jezebel at her toilette, John Bram Liston

Bible Murders
Jehu murders Jezebel and the royal children

Charlton Heston as Moses in the movie 'The Ten Commandments'

Top Ten Bible Films
All your favorites

Rita Hayworth as Salome in the Dance of the Seven Veils

Dance of the 7 veils
Rita Hayworth as Salome







New website

Life of Jesus Christ

Painting by Albrecht Durer

what really happened

historical background





Delilah ~ Samson's secret exposed!

Delilah was a beautiful Philistine woman, probably a successful courtesan. She was certainly loved by Samson, a not altogether pleasant Hebrew warrior who described making love with his wife as 'ploughing with my heifer...'.  Despite an appalling record of violence, or perhaps because of it, he was a hero to the beleaguered Hebrew settlers who were trying to find a place for themselves in land already occupied by Canaanites and Philistines. 

Hedy Lamarr as Delilah in 'Samson and Delilah'

Samson was enormously strong, and people believed this must be because of some magic secret. Some Philistine leaders approached Delilah and offered her an immense sum of money if she found out the secret of Samson's strength, which of course they wanted to destroy.

Three times she asked him, and three times he gave a false answer. Eventually he told her that his strength resided in his hair which, since it had never been cut, was far more plentiful that any other man's. 

Since he was probably only a customer to Delilah, and since the money she would get for the secret would be enough to release her from her life of prostitution, she gave his secret away. She called the Philistines, and while Samson slept she allowed them to cut off his luxuriant hair.Gold spiral bracelet of two snakes whose tails are tied in a Hercules knot that is decorated with a garnet in a bezel setting; from Eretria, on the island of Euboea, 4th–3rd century BC

 Without his hair - and therefore his strength - Samson was easily overpowered. In the words of the story, 'the Lord had left him'. 

Delilah may have expected a quick death for him, rather than the protracted torture that followed his capture. His eyes were gouged from their sockets and he was thrown into prison. After that, Delilah disappears from the story, but probably the Philistines honoured their promise of payment and Delilah enjoyed a comfortable retirement.

Bible reference Judges 16:4-21   

Salome ~ Herod's incest with daughter?

Salome is remembered for two things: the Dance of the Seven Veils (which did not happen in the way that modern films suggest) and the execution of John the Baptist (which did).

Veiled Middle Eastern woman The young princess started off with certain natural advantages: 

  • she was the daughter of Herodias, a clever and beautiful woman, and

  • she was step-daughter of Herod Antipas, who ruled a large part of ancient Palestine.

Herod Antipas had clapped John into prison because he was outspoken about the marriage between Antipas and Herodias - it violated Mosaic law which forbad marriage to the wife of one's brother. Herodias was the divorced wife of Antipas' half brother Philip. 

The political situation in 1st century Palestine was delicate, and Antipas and Herodias simply could not afford to have a trouble-maker roaming around the country criticizing the royal family. They knew they had to act - but they could not do so openly. Dress worn by Rita Hayworth for the Dance of the Seven Veils

The best they could do was to clap John into prison and leave him there, which they did. Unfortunately this did not solve the problem and the royal family, particularly Herodias who faced being divorced if John kept on ranting, looked for another solution. 

It is hard to know how much of what happened was pre-arranged, but at Antipas' birthday dinner the young Salome danced, and pleased her step-father mightily. In his cups, or seeming to be, Antipas promised her anything that she asked for.

She went to her mother for advice: what should she demand? Herodias seized the opportunity and told her to ask for John's head. Salome went back to the banquet hall and made her request. Antipas immediately granted it. John was beheaded (and therefore silenced permanently), and the young princess calmly went on with her life - she married well, twice, and lived a long life.

Herod is often shown as lusting after the pre-pubescent Salome, who desired John the Baptist. This may or may not be so. What is known is that the family was politically astute - Jesus called Antipas 'the fox'. It is more likely that the girl simply acted to protect her mother against the criticism of a man who was, to Salome, a crazed fanatic.

Bible reference Mark 6:14-29, Matthew 14:1-12

Watch the Hollywood version: Rita Hayworth in the Dance of the Seven Veils


Jezebel  ~  Queen's body eaten by dogs

Jezebel was born a princess of Phoenicia, so she was certainly familiar with ancient Egyptian fashionsBorn to power, Jezebel was a princess from the rich city of Sidon where her father ruled. She married Ahab, the warrior king of Israel. 

Though she was queen of Israel, she stayed loyal to  the gods of agriculture and weather - Baal, god of storms and water, and his divine wife Asherah, who was a fierce champion of the family

Jezebel's father in Sidon was an absolute monarch, and she assumed that a king's word was law. This was not the Israelite way of doing things. 

In one incident, her husband Ahab needed a plot of land but the owner, Naboth, would not sell. Jezebel decided to act. She arranged the judicial murder of Naboth, and so got the land for her husband. She thought she was within her rights; many people disagreed. 

When her husband Ahab died, Jezebel's son Ahaziah succeeded to the throne. Two years later he died in an 'accident', falling from a high balcony in the palace. Her second son Joram became king, but after some years he was murdered in a palace coup led by a sinister man called Jehu

In the ensuing violence Jezebel was killed as well, flung by her own eunuchs from a high balcony. She died as a queen should die, magnificent and defiant, hurling insults at her murderers. 

The usurper, Jehu, ran his iron-wheeled chariot back and forth over her dying body, then went into the palace for a celebratory dinner. 

Afterwards, he remembered that her body was still lying in the courtyard of the palace, and ordered that it be buried. But the dogs had got to her first, and all that remained of this royal woman was her head and her hands.

Bible references: conflict between worshippers of Yahweh and Baal 1 Kings 16:29-34, 18:17-40, 19:1-3; the episode of Naboth’s vineyard 1 Kings 21:1-16; the death of Jezebel and her family 1 Kings 22:29-40, 2 Kings 9:21-28, 9:30-37



Eve ~ the original trouble-maker?

Ripe apple At a key moment in the story of creation, God made a creature ‘in his own image’. This creature had a nature that was essentially creative. It could imagine, invent, and change the world, as God did in the Genesis story. It was an expression of the creative energy of God. 

But the creature was alone, so God created a mate for it. He took a bone from the creature's rib cage and fashioned Woman - Eve. Man would only be complete if there was a woman beside him.

Eve was even more creative (and therefore God-like?) than her mate Adam. When one of the reptiles in the Garden of Eden spoke to her, suggesting she try something new, she was intrigued. She had been given the power of making decisions. If she did as the reptile suggested and ate the Apple (or rather, the Pomegranate - there were no apples in the ancient Middle East) she might  gain new understanding and wisdom.

Adam and Eve, Tamara de Lempicka Eve was an innocent. She had no previous  experience of deceit, so she believed what she was told. She made her choice, deciding to seek knowledge of good and evil rather than be obedient to God's command. 

It was a dangerous choice -  the quest for knowledge should always be balanced by wisdom. Eve learnt this lesson the hard way.

She took the apple to Adam, so that he might taste it too. He ate it without thinking or arguing. Like Eve, he misused his ability to make decisions and did not consider the consequences. 

Green snake on tree branch Instantly, the original harmony between humanity and nature was disrupted. The Garden of Eden was lost - as it continues to be lost, every day, in our world.

Of the two, Eve was the mover and shaker, introducing change in an otherwise stable world.

Bible reference Genesis 2:18-4:2; 4:25

Herodias ~ she stood by her man

This little girl's life began in darkness, in a welter of blood. Before she was born, her grandfather Herod the Great killed her grandmother, the lovely, tragic Mariamne, in a fit of jealous rage. Then he killed her father, his own son. Her mother fled to Rome with Herodias and her younger brother Agrippa, and stayed there until it was safe to return. Little Herodias grew up as a royal aristocrat in Rome, pampered and spoiled. 

Herodias, painting by Delaroche Her first husband, and the father of her daughter Salome, was her uncle Philip, also a son of Herod the Great. She divorced him and then married Philip's half brother Herod Antipas (who was also her uncle). Marriage to an uncle was normal practice among royal families in the eastern part of the Roman Empire.

Soon after she and Antipas were married, John the Baptist began to criticize her for marrying her former husband's brother. In response, Antipas put him in prison. 

Whose idea was this? Hard to say. Mark in his gospel says it was Herodias who wanted to see John killed. Matthew blamed Herod and said that from the start he plotted to be rid of John. 

In all probability, it was a bit of both. Royal or not, Herodias' family was noted for its rat cunning, and John's harangues were de-stabilizing a politically sensitive country. If a revolt broke out, Antipas and Herodias would be the losers, and they were well aware of the fact. So arrangements were made: Salome danced, Herod promised, Herodias advised, and John was beheaded. His death acted as a warning to other would-be agitators.

As far as the gospels are concerned, that was the end of Herodias' story. But in fact there was quite a bit more. Some years later her younger brother Agrippa was made a king by the Roman Emperor Caligula - Agrippa was a vicious young ne'er-do-well, but a close friend of Caligula's. Herodias was incensed at the injustice of it all.  Why should her own husband Antipas, who had served Rome loyally for many years, not receive the same honour?Bust of the emperor Caligula made at about the time of his meeting with Herod Antipas and Herodias

She talked Antipas into going to Rome to ask for this favour, but when they met Caligula face-to-face the young Emperor casually stripped them of all their possessions, everything they owned, and gave it instead to Agrippa. He also sentenced them to life-long exile. On being reminded that Herodias was Agrippa's sister, he made her an offer: disown her husband and she would be allowed to retain her own wealth. 

It was here that Herodias showed her true mettle. She proudly rejected Caligula's offer and went instead into exile with her husband. It must be said, however, that exile in this case meant living in a Roman city in the south of France, perhaps not such a terrible sacrifice after all.

Bible reference Mark 6:17-28, Matthew 14:1-11; Luke 3:19-20


Potiphar's Wife: naked man in love triangle

Joseph, the son of Rachel and Jacob, was sold into slavery and taken to Egypt. Once there, he made the best of things and eventually became an outstanding success - Chief Steward for a rich Egyptian, Potiphar.

Statue of the ancient Egyptian queen Nefertiti Potiphar had a beautiful wife, a woman used to getting her way. She was lonely, bored and constantly in the company of an unusually handsome man, a Brad Pitt of the ancient world. Neglected by her husband who may have been a eunuch, she fell in love with Joseph - to the point where she became obsessive about him.

She saw him daily, and soon the temptation became too much. She made some kind of sexual approach to Joseph - 'Lie with me', she said. 

Joseph faced a dilemma. He had to either offend the wife or betray her husband. He decided on the former. But one day when they were alone in the house she grabbed hold of him, pulling him down onto her bed. In the physical tussle that followed she pulled off his linen loin-cloth. He was naked, and ran out of the room and then out of the house, leaving his clothing behind.

Potiphar's wife was enraged. She called to the members of the household, telling them Joseph had tried to rape her. She showed them Joseph's clothing to prove it. Only her screams had prevented him abusing her, she said. 

Reconstruction of an ancient Egyptian bed She waited until her husband came home and told him the same story. He was enraged - at Joseph? at her? The incident was now common knowledge. As a cuckold he would become a laughing stock. 

He charged Joseph with the attempted rape of his wife, and put him in prison. 

Of the wife, we hear no more. 

Bible reference Genesis 39:1-20

 Maacah - give me that old-time religion

Maacah was a royal princess, but one born under a cloud. Her father was said to be Absalom, who rebelled against his own father King David and was murdered. But she may have been the illegitimate daughter of Absalom's sister Tamar, who was raped by her obsessive half-brother Amnon (see the story here). Either way, not a good start.

Despite this, Maacah must have been a charmer, because she overcame the conditions of her birth and married Solomon's eldest son Rehoboam. The Bible says bluntly that he loved her more than any of his other wives and concubines.

When Solomon died Rehoboam succeeded to the throne. There was trouble brewing. The ten northern tribes were discontented with the way that power was centralized in Jerusalem. They wanted the old autonomous tribal system, where they had more control. 

Things came to a head at Rehoboam's coronation, and the ten tribes broke away, leaving Rehoboam with only two tribes (Judah and Benjamin) and his capital, Jerusalem. 

There was trouble from outside as well. Egypt invaded, and Rehoboam's army was unable to repel them. The entire territory of Judah was left open to rape and pillage. Worse still (I joke) was that the royal women were forced to surrender all the jewelry (and their honour?) to the invaders. Maacah lost all her personal treasures.

Small piece of carved ivory excavated at ancient Nimrud: it shows the 'Woman at the Window', at a harem? or a temple? Is she human or goddess?Twelve years later her husband died, and Maacah's son Abijah succeeded him. Now Maacah came into full power as Queen Mother - the most powerful position a woman could hold. 

She immediately began to restore the old religion - worship of the fertility gods Baal and Asherah -  and it is for this reason that the Bible regards her as beyond the pale. 

Maacah's reign as Queen Mother lasted for only two years, while her son Abijah reigned. When he suddenly died he was succeeded by his son Asa, who may or may not have owed his throne to the Yahwist priests. In any case, Asa was removed her from her position of power and forced to live out her days in the claustrophobic rooms of the royal harem.

Bible reference 1 Kings 15, 2 Chronicles 11:20-23; 15:16

Lot's Wife ~ Don't look back

Lot's wife is unnamed, but her story is significant. Her crime, for which she was turned into a pillar of lifeless salt, was to look back - in other words, to long for the past rather than living in the present.

Pillars of salt Her husband was the nephew of Abraham, and her whole family travelled with Abraham in the long years of wandering as they looked for pasture for their flocks.

Eventually they came to Canaan, and Lot's family and Abraham's parted company - their flocks had grown so large it was no longer practical to travel together. Lot moved into the Jordan valley. It was not a particularly good place to be. There was constant warfare between the petty kings of the region. Lot's family and servants were captured by one of these kings, and only saved when Abraham came to rescue them.

Some time after this, Lot settled with his family in the notorious city of Sodom, already well known as a centre of homosexual and libertine practices.

Again, the timing was bad. God lost patience with the city and sent two men/angels to destroy it, but on Abraham's insistence these beings  warned Lot of what they were about to do. He in turn warned his family - his wife, two daughters and the two young men who were to marry his daughters. On the following morning Lot's wife and daughters, no doubt feeling somewhat dubious about the whole thing, packed whatever they could carry and headed for the hills. Lot's Wife, painting by E Thor Carlson

The angels/men warned them not to look back: 'Flee for your life; do not look back or stop anywhere in the plain; flee to the hills, or else you will be consumed.' 

The little group fled, and as they hurried away sulphur and fire began to rain from the sky. The cities behind them were consumed in a terrible cataclysm. The noise, smoke and tumult were terrifying - and all the time, they could not look back to where they had come from, to the home they had left. It became too much for Lot's wife. She turned her body and looked back - and died instantly, as her body turned from warm living flesh into dry, lifeless salt. 

The point of the story? Don't look back. Life means looking forward, moving onwards, not focusing on the past or becoming mired in the dark memories we all have. Looking back will leach the life out of you, and you will become as arid as a pillar of salt. Jesus gave Mary Magdalene much the same message when, in the garden on the morning of the Resurrection, he told her not to cling to him, but to go and tell the disciples about him.

The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, John Martin

Bible reference Genesis 11:31-14:16; 19

Lot's Daughters ~ Bad blood

After the cataclysm, Lot and his two daughters fled up into the hills, where they could be safe. 

Lot's daughters, by Jan Muller There were no settlements there, and Lot and the two girls huddled for shelter in a cave. They believed they were the only surviving members of the human race, and that all other people in the world had been destroyed. 

The two young men who had been their promised husbands were dead, and the young women saw no hope of ever having children of their own.

They decided to use trickery to get themselves pregnant: they would get their father drunk in the evening, and have sex with him as he lay in a stupor. This they did, both of them, on separate nights. See the painting above; notice that both women are wearing red, the colour of seduction, and that their mother, now turned to salt, stands in the background seeming to watch them). 

Map of ancient Israel showing Moab and Ammon Sure enough, both girls became pregnant and eventually bore a son each. 

The older girl called her son Moab, and he was named as the ancestor of the Moabites (see map at right), a tribe with whom the Israelites were often at war. 

The younger girl called her son Ben-ammi and he, the Bible says, was the ancestor of the Ammonites - another tribe with whom the Israelites fought (see map). 

Thus both the Moabites and the Ammonites, the Bible proposed, were the result of acts of incest between Lot and his daughters.

Bible reference Genesis 19:30-38

Athaliah - power struggle

Some other powerful women: Elizabeth 1 of England
Another powerful woman: Margaret Thatcher, Prime Minister of England

Athaliah had an impeccable royal lineage. She was either daughter of  the greatest king of Israel, Omri, and sister-in-law of Jezebel, or daughter of Ahab and Jezebel. She married the crown prince of Judah, Jehoram, who ruled as king of Judah for eight years before he died at the age of forty - comparatively young, even for those times. He had a turbulent reign, mostly spent on the battlefield.

Jehoram was succeeded by Athaliah's twenty-two year old son Ahaziah, and her position immediately became much more powerful. The top woman in a kingdom was not the king's wife - wives went in and out of favour. It was the Queen Mother, who acted as counsellor to her son and was often the only person he could trust.

Unfortunately for Athaliah, her son reigned for only one year before he was murdered by Jehu, who had already killed all of the royal family of Israel, including Jezebel. Athaliah was at the palace in Jerusalem when she heard what had happened. 

Now the story gets a bit muddy. According to the Bible, Athaliah set out to destroy all of her own family, seizing power for herself. Why she should do this is not clear. She was bound to face violent opposition. The only credible explanation is that every one of her male children and grandchildren were already dead, and she did not want to die with them. 

It's possible that the boys were killed by Jehu's followers, and that Athaliah managed to save herself but was later blamed for the carnage. Medieval painting of Athaliah murdering the royal children - her grandchildren

According to the Bible narrative, one royal princeling, Jehoash, was saved from the massacre by the quick action of Jehosheba, Athaliah's sister. She hid the baby and his nurse in a remote bedroom of the palace, and kept him hidden for the next six years.

During this time Athaliah was the ruler of Judah - the only female monarch Judah or Israel ever had. But at the end of that six years there was another palace coup, led by one of the Yahwist priests, Jehoiada - who was also, as it happened, the husband of Jehosheba. He knew about the hidden boy, and produced the by-now six year old, telling members of the military they should place the boy on the throne - with Jehoiada as regent, of course.

Pool of blood on stone surface The breakaway group crowned the boy and anointed him, saluting him with cries of 'Long live the King!' 

They then went after Athaliah. She ran to the Temple but was cornered, alone in a hostile crowd. At the Horse Gate of the Temple, they beat and stabbed her to death. The seven-year old Jehoash became king. 

Bible reference 2 Kings 8:26-29, 9:27-29, 10:12-14, 11:1-16, 2 Chronicles 22:10-23:15

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Bible Bad Women: Jezebel, Salome, Eve, Delilah, Maacah, Potiphar's Wife, Lot's Wife & Daughters, Herodias, Athaliah


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Copyright 2006 Elizabeth Fletcher